2023考研英语复习指导新题型例题解析

2023考研英语复习指导新题型例题解析

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2023考研英语复习指导新题型例题解析

  【例题】2014年

  Directions:

  The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45,
you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing
from the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs A and E
have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10
points)

  [A] Some archaeological sites have always been easily observable – for
example, the Parthenon in Athens, Greece the pyramids of Giza in Egypt and the
megaliths of Stonehenge in southern England. But these sites are exceptions to
the norm. Most archaeological sites have been located by means of careful
searching, while many others have been discovered by accident. Olduvai Gorge, an
early hominid site in Tanzania, was found by a butterfly hunter who literally
fell into its deep valley in 1911. Thousands of Aztec artifacts came to light
during the digging of the Mexico City subway in the 1970s.

  [B] In another case, American archaeologists René Million and George
Cowgill spent years systematically mapping the entire city of Teotihuacán in the
Valley of Mexico near what is now Mexico City. At its peak around AD 600, this
city was one of the largest human settlements in the world. The researchers
mapped not only the city's vast and ornate ceremonial areas, but also hundreds
of simpler apartment complexes where common people lived.

  [C] How do archaeologists know where to find what they are looking for when
there is nothing visible on the surface of the ground? Typically, they survey
and sample (make test excavations on) large areas of terrain to determine where
excavation will yield useful information. Surveys and test samples have also
become important for understanding the larger landscapes that contain
archaeological sites.

  [D] Surveys can cover a single large settlement or entire landscapes. In
one case, many researchers working around the ancient Maya city of Copán,
Honduras, have located hundreds of small rural villages and individual dwellings
by using aerial photographs and by making surveys on foot. The resulting
settlement maps show how the distribution and density of the rural population
around the city changed dramatically between AD 500 and 850, when Copán
collapsed.

  [E] To find their sites, archaeologists today rely heavily on systematic
survey methods and a variety of high-technology tools and techniques. Airborne
technologies, such as different types of radar and photographic equipment
carried by airplanes or spacecraft, allow archaeologists to learn about what
lies beneath the ground without digging. Aerial surveys locate general areas of
interest or larger buried features, such as ancient buildings or fields.

  [F] Most archaeological sites, however, are discovered by archaeologists
who have set out to look for them. Such searches can take years. British
archaeologist Howard Carter knew that the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh
Tutankhamun existed from information found in other sites. Carter sifted through
rubble in the Valley of the Kings for seven years before he located the tomb in
1922. In the late 1800s British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans combed antique
dealers' stores in Athens, Greece. He was searching for tiny engraved seals
attributed to the ancient Mycenaean culture that dominated Greece from the 1400s
to 1200s BC. Evans's interpretations of these engravings eventually led him to
find the Minoan palace at Knossos (Knosós), on the island of Crete, in 1900.

  [G] Ground surveys allow archaeologists to pinpoint the places where digs
will be successful. Most ground surveys involve a lot of walking, looking for
surface clues such as small fragments of pottery. They often include a certain
amount of digging to test for buried materials at selected points across a
landscape. Archaeologists also may locate buried remains by using such
technologies as ground radar, magnetic-field recording, and metal detectors.
Archaeologists commonly use computers to map sites and the landscapes around
sites. Two- and three-dimensional maps are helpful tools in planning
excavations, illustrating how sites look, and presenting the results of
archaeological research.

  41. C 42. F 43. G 44. D 45.B

  【解题步骤】

  a.精读首段:

  本题没有给出首段,需要考生先判断。具体方法要根据下步每段开头的关键词而定。

  b.通读段首尾,模块组合+位置预知。

  根据上述的八大方法,找出各个段落段首/尾的关联词,具体分布为:

  [A] Some archaeological sites 2019考研英语:新题型分析及解题技巧

  [B] In another case(明显代词+名词)

  [C] How…..

  [D] … in one case

  [E] …find their sites….

  [F] most archaeological sites, however

  根据如上的关键词,考生首先能判断出来的是D和B的关系,根据代词应该是D>B。

  D>B肯定不能让在41或者42,肯定是43,44,45中的两个。因此首段的可能性只能是C和G中的一个。而C句首又是明显的用特殊疑问句提出问题,符合首段的特点。

  D和B的特点是one和another的代词关系发生连贯。类似的连贯词还有one-the other,其复数形式是some –
others,同样some和others会有些类似的同义词替换。根据这个原理,A和F也是前后关联A>F。因此42选F。

  最后三个空。E的开头提到了on systematic survey,各种研究调查。E的段落也提到了Aerial
surveys(航空研究,空中研究)而G的开头则提到了ground
survey(地面研究),正好是总分关系,所以顺序为E>G。因为43-45是GDB。所以答案为CFGDB

  3、7选5 五步解题法

  七选五题型难度比较大,主要考查考生的逻辑能力。首先,考生需要通读文章,弄清楚文章的主题、结构安排和段落关系。

  文章的相邻段落之间既存在联系又存在差别。段落之间的联系为二者共享同一主题词段落之间的差别为后一段落比前一段落多出一些内容,而且这些多出的内容恰恰体现了“启下”的关系。因此,利用段落之间的差额主题内容,即“相同表联系,相异引下文”的原则,便可以确定下一段落的内容。

  其次,弄清楚文章的主题和段落关系后,通读选项,弄清楚选项的意思,找出选项中与空前空后句中心词同义,近义或相关性的词语,实现关键词的对接,确定句子间的关联性,从而选出正确答案。另外,过阅读选项,有可能找出跟其他选项表达完全不同意思的句子,这样的话我们就可以直接将该选项排除。

  (1)先看选项

  1完形填空不一样,“七选五”的答案选项较少,因此,我们可以过句段的完整性或者句子后面的标点符号来判断其在文章中的位置。另外,过阅读选项,有可能找出跟其他选项表达完全不同意思的句子或段落,这样的话我们就可以直接将该选项排除。

  (2)再看空前空后

  由于“七选五”空出的是整个句子或段落,而这些句段之间,然有一种联系,因此我们可以过选项中某个名词或动词跟空前或空后的一致性或者逻辑相关性来确定这两个句段之间有一种关联性,从而选择正确的答案。

  (3)注意代词或定冠词

  在做这类题目的时候,一定要注意文中出现的人称代词或者指示代词,因为我们知道,代词是指代一个名词或者一个句子的,然后过代词在句子中所做的成分我们可以推断出它指代的内容,我们要做的就是从选项中找出含有相应内容的句段。

  (4)注意特殊疑问词

  如果选项中或空前出现特殊疑问词,一定要把这句话仔细读几遍,因为对于不同特殊疑问词的回答方式是不一样的,比如对why的回答,后面要有because等表原因的词,对when的回答,后面要有表时间的状语,对where的回答,后面要有表地点的名词,对how的回答,后面要有方式状语等。

  (5)注意关系连词

  如一些表示转折的连词,but,however,yet,though,nevertheless等,另外还有一些表示并列关系的连词如and,also,as
well as,neither nor,either or,not only but also,on one hand on the other
hand等。过不同的连词我们可以推知句段与句段之间不同的逻辑关系,从而找出在最符合行文逻辑的正确选项。

  4、小标题解题步骤及技巧

  【解题步骤】

  a、阅读题目要求,确定文章主题。很多考生都会忽略这一步,但这恰恰是让你在最短时间内了解文章内容的重要方法

  b、通读短文,了解各段落内容并作简单概括,留意该段重要词汇(围绕什么展开叙述)、首尾句等

  c、阅读小标题,将小标题和段落进行匹配

  d、参看全文,对答案进行检验,看是否存在段落与标题不够匹配的情况。

  【解题技巧】

  小标题的解题技巧主要集中在段落和小标题关联性的比对上:

  a、关注段落首句、第二句,看是否有没有关键词和短语和待选小标题的词相同,若有,列为重点,再进一步比对详细内容

  b、快速扫视段落,有无某词或事物反复提到多次,再看该词或该事物是否有在小标题中出现,若有,则列为重点,再进一步比对详细内容

  c、若前面两项都没有,则回到段落首末句,看看小标题中出现了首末句重点词的同义替换表达,若有,则该项就是答案。

  小标题中一般包含对某一段落重要内容的再现,只是再现的方式不同,一般包括原词再现、同义词再现、词义再现三种形式,第一种在解题过程中很容易就能看出,后两种则需要细心比对。

以上为“2023考研英语复习指导新题型例题解析”全文内容,祝大家备考顺利,取得优异的考试成绩。

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2023考研英语复习指导新题型例题解析

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